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Croyez-moi, j’ai raison et voici pourquoi!

L’univers de la science et plus précisément des études scientifiques est intimidant pour plusieurs. Il s’agit d’un milieu parfois complexe et parfois très politisé. Nombreux sont ceux et celles pour qui un article scientifique fait foi de tout. En fait, lorsque l’on souhaite véhiculer de l’information en entraînement ou en nutrition sur les réseaux sociaux, deux tendances se démarquent du lot :

1) On appuie ses dires avec un article scientifique (lorsqu’on en trouve un) ou,

2) On ridiculise la communauté scientifique en affirmant qu’ils ne connaissent rien et qu’ils sont tous à la solde des grands lobbys de ce monde.

Certaines figures populaires du milieu de l’entraînement et de la nutrition excellent dans l’utilisation de support scientifique pour appuyer leur approche quand ils trouvent des articles « pertinents » et n’hésitent pas le lendemain à dénigrer la communauté scientifique lorsqu’elle présente un argumentaire contraire à leur ligne de pensée (les chercheurs sont toujours tellement déconnectés de la réalité).

Je fais volontairement usage des sympathiques guillemets pour accompagner mon usage du terme pertinent. Pourquoi ? Parce qu’il arrive parfois que les articles utilisés comme source de référence ne soient justement pas pertinents. Plusieurs choses peuvent mener à ce dérapage scientifique.

Il est possible que l’article ait été d’une nature frauduleuse, qu’il soit basé sur des résultats falsifiés ou encore que les auteurs aient commis quelques erreurs qui invalides les résultats. L’utilisateur de la citation se contente de lire l’abrégé sans pousser sa lecture plus loin afin de voir les avertissements de retrait et l’utilise de bonne foi… Pourtant, lorsqu’un article est retiré de publication il est d’usage de ne plus l’utiliser en référence (oui, oui, je vous assure). Prenons la publication de Fukuhara et coll.[1] portant sur une protéine sécrétée par le tissu adipeux viscéral qui fut retirée de publication en 2007 (une enquête a révélé quelques erreurs méthodologiques qui invalident les analyses des auteurs. Une erreur de bonne foi, mais qui mène néanmoins à une impossibilité de conclure). Toutefois, ce même article fut cité pas moins de 776 fois après son année de retrait…

Il est également possible que celui qui fait usage de la référence comprenne mal l’article, interprète différemment les résultats ou encore tire des conclusions autres (sans avoir toutes les informations…). C’est l’exemple de l’article de Perry et coll.[2] qui est très souvent cité pour démontrer la supériorité de l’entraînement par intervalle pour la perte de poids. Pourtant, les auteurs n’ont pas mesuré la composition corporelle des participants lors de cette étude. Il s’agit d’une excellente étude, bien conçue avec des mesures extrêmement intéressantes… qui s’intéresse aux capacités oxydatives du muscle. Les auteurs ont trouvé que l’entraînement par intervalles augmentait la capacité du muscle à oxyder des lipides lors d’efforts sous-maximaux (60 % VO2max) pendant 60 min (augmentation de 2 g de gras oxydés suite à la période d’intervention de 6 semaines). Les auteurs n’ont jamais comparé l’entraînement par intervalles à d’autres méthodes d’entraînement. Ils n’ont pas non plus mesuré les changements de composition corporelle pour la durée de l’intervention (ils rapportent que le poids est demeuré stable pendant la période de 6 semaines). Pourtant, plusieurs personnes utilisent cet article afin de justifier la supériorité de l’entraînement par intervalles sur d’autres méthodes pour la perte de poids. Les auteurs n’ont jamais démontré cela…

Il est aussi possible que l’article ne révèle pas tout et que le lecteur doive creuser davantage pour mieux comprendre les informations. C’est le cas de l’article de Buckley et coll.[3] qui fait état d’une amélioration de la capacité aérobie suite à un entraînement multimodal de type CrossFit. En résumé, les auteurs ont comparé l’impact d’un entraînement par intervalles (entraînement sur aviron par intervalles à haute intensité) avec un entraînement multimodal (exercices intermittents intenses comprenant des exercices de musculation de force et des exercices intenses à épuisement). Peu d’information est disponible dans l’article quant à la description des exercices intenses du protocole multimodal. Les participants ont complété des circuits (au nombre de 6) composés d’exercices de force (possiblement squat, soulevé de terre, développé vertical) suivis d’un exercice métabolique qui n’est pas clairement défini. Chaque circuit est d’une durée de 60 s et espacés d’un repos de 3 min. Leur article présente une augmentation similaire de la capacité aérobie chez les participants pour une période de 6 semaines (une augmentation de ~2 mL* kg-1*min-1 dans chaque groupe soit un gain de ~4 %). Il n’en fallait pas plus pour que cet article soit utilisé pour « démontrer » que l’entraînement en musculation permettait une plus grande augmentation de la capacité aérobie que l’entraînement cardiovasculaire traditionnel. Heu… a-t-on lu le même article ? Également, quels sont ces exercices « métaboliques » ? J’ai décidé de communiquer avec les auteurs de l’étude afin d’obtenir plus d’information. Ils furent d’une générosité exemplaire et m’ont transmis l’ensemble des informations que j’avais demandé. Les exercices métaboliques étaient des burpees ou un exercice similaire réalisé à pleine intensité. On rapporte qu’il est possible d’atteindre des intensités supérieures à 80 % de la capacité aérobie lors de l’exécution de ce type de mouvement[4]. En fait, il s’agit d’un exercice qui peut s’apparenter à l’aviron (mobilisation des membres inférieurs et supérieurs de façon cycle, déplacement du poids du corps, etc.). Pourtant, certaines figures du monde de l’entraînement ont utilisé cet article pour informer la population que faire de l’entraînement en force sur le squat allait augmenter leur capacité aérobie. Heu… ai-je manqué un mémo ?

En terminant, il y a aussi ceux qui utilisent une quantité astronomique de référence pour clouer le bec à leurs détracteurs. On noie l’information et on se donne une crédibilité immédiate en affichant une quantité astronomique articles (dont certains tombent souvent les catégories précédemment présentées). Premièrement, personne n’ira vérifier chacune des références et deuxièmement, s’il y en a beaucoup, c’est que ça doit être vrai. De toute façon, si un article scientifique le démontre, c’est que c’est assurément vrai. Et si aucun article ne le démontre, c’est que la science est dans le champ, comme à l’habitude…[3, 5-252]

Références (utiles)

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Références totalement hors contexte mais ça parait bien…
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Une réflexion au sujet de « Croyez-moi, j’ai raison et voici pourquoi! »

  1. Ce fût un réel plaisir de te lire – Merci pour ton franc parlé sans verser dans la banalité et pour tes exemples concrets, bien vulgarisés qui illustres très bien mon débat quotidien à titre de kinésiologue

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